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GLRX5 mutations impair heme biosynthetic enzymes ALA synthase 2 and ferrochelatase in Human congenital sideroblastic anemia

Abstract : Non-syndromic microcytic congenital sideroblastic anemia (cSA) is predominantly caused by defective genes encoding for either ALAS2, the first enzyme of heme biosynthesis pathway or SLC25A38, the mitochondrial importer of glycine, an ALAS2 substrate. Herein we explored a new case of cSA with two mutations in GLRX5, a gene for which only two patients have been reported so far. The patient was a young female with biallelic compound heterozygous mutations in GLRX5 (p.Cys67Tyr and p.Met128Lys). Three-D structure analysis confirmed the involvement of Cys67 in the coordination of the [2Fe2S] cluster and suggested a potential role of Met128 in partner interactions. The protein-level of ferrochelatase, the terminal-enzyme of heme process, was increased both in patient-derived lymphoblastoid and CD34+ cells, however, its activity was drastically decreased. The activity of ALAS2 was found altered and possibly related to a defect in the biogenesis of its co-substrate, the succinyl-CoA. Thus, the patient exhibits both a very low ferrochelatase activity without any accumulation of porphyrins precursors in contrast to what is reported in erythropoietic protoporphyria with solely impaired ferrochelatase activity. A significant oxidative stress was evidenced by decreased reduced glutathione and aconitase activity, and increased MnSOD protein expression. This oxidative stress depleted and damaged mtDNA, decreased complex I and IV activities and depleted ATP content. Collectively, our study demonstrates the key role of GLRX5 in modulating ALAS2 and ferrochelatase activities and in maintaining mitochondrial function.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 21, 2022 - 9:25:36 AM
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Raed Daher, Abdellah Mansouri, Alain Martelli, Sophie Bayart, Hana Manceau, et al.. GLRX5 mutations impair heme biosynthetic enzymes ALA synthase 2 and ferrochelatase in Human congenital sideroblastic anemia. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Elsevier, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.12.012⟩. ⟨hal-02351427⟩



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