Genetically based resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and its relationship with physiological, immunological characteristics and infection processes - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Aquaculture Year : 2007

Genetically based resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and its relationship with physiological, immunological characteristics and infection processes

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K. Costil
Pierre Boudry

Abstract

Summer mortality of Pacific oysters is known in several countries. However no specific pathogen has been systematically associated with this phenomenon. A complex combination of environmental and biological parameters has been suggested as the cause and is now starting to be identified. A high genetic basis was found for survival in oysters when a first generation (G1) was tested in three sites during summer. This paper presents a synthesis on physiological characteristics of two selected groups (‘R' and ‘S', from families selected for resistance and susceptibility to summer mortality respectively), of the second and third generations. R and S showed improvement or reduction of survival compared with the control in both field and laboratory trials confirming the high heritability of survival of juveniles <1 year old. Interestingly, no correlation was observed between growth and survival. Comparison between the two selected groups showed that S oysters invested more energy in reproduction and stayed a longer time without spawning than R oysters which had high synchronous spawning. This was mainly shown with high rather than low dietary rations (respectively 12% and 4% DW algae/DW oyster) in a controlled experiment. Moreover, early partial spawning was detected in S oysters and not R ones in the high dietary ration. S showed a higher respiration rate and an earlier decrease in absorption efficiency than R during gametogenesis, but they were not significantly different in glycogen or ATP utilisation. Two months before a mortality episode, hemocytes from S oysters had a higher adhesive capacity than R hemocytes and significantly higher reactive oxygen species production capacity. One month before mortality, S oysters had the highest hyalinocyte concentration and their expression of genes coding for glucose metabolism enzymes (Hexokinase, GS, PGM, PEPCK) was significantly lower in the labial palps. After a thermal increase from 13 °C to 19 °C, during 8 days in normoxia, S oysters showed a large HSP70 increase under hypoxia contrary to R oysters, suggesting their high susceptibility to stress. Their catalase activity was lower than in R oysters and showed no further change to subsequent hypoxia and pesticide stresses, in contrast to R oysters. These observations suggest possible links between higher reproductive effort in S oysters, their specific stress response to temperature and hypoxia, ROS production, partial spawning, hyalinocyte increase and the infection process. To compare R and S oysters in a more integrated way, a suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) library and a micro-array strategy are being undertaken.
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Dates and versions

hal-00473457 , version 1 (15-04-2010)

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Jean-François Samain, Lionel Degremont, Patrick Soletchnik, Joel Haure, Edouard Bédier, et al.. Genetically based resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and its relationship with physiological, immunological characteristics and infection processes. Aquaculture, 2007, 268, pp.227-243. ⟨10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.04.044⟩. ⟨hal-00473457⟩
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