Mode I cracking versus dilatancy banding: Experimental constraints on the mechanisms of extension fracturing - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Geophysical Research Year : 2011

Mode I cracking versus dilatancy banding: Experimental constraints on the mechanisms of extension fracturing

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A.I. Chemenda
Si-H. Nguyen
  • Function : Author
Jean-Pierre Petit
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 861980
J. Ambre

Abstract

Fractures or discontinuities perpendicular to the least stress σ3 were generated in a synthetic rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive, and dilatant) material in axisymmetric extension tests. These fractures are of two types defined by the mean stress σ. When σ is very small, the fractures form through the mode I cracking at tensile σ3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces. At higher σ, these surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint or delicate plumose patterns. The amplitude of the plumose topography increases with σ. The axial stress σ3 at fracturing reduces in magnitude and changes in sign with the σ increase. Thus σ3 orthogonal discontinuities can form at compressive σ3. SEM observations show that these discontinuities are deformation localization bands where the material is characterized by the heterogeneous decohesion and volume and porosity increase due to dilatancy. The band thickness is several grain sizes. At formation, the bands are not opened, so they are not mode I fractures. They become fractures with plumose fractography after the separation of the sample parts along the band. The formation mechanism of these discontinuities or fractures is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilatancy banding (with further σ increase the bands become inclined to σ1, i.e., shear). The similarity between the experimentally generated plumose surface fractures and natural joints is discussed, and it is suggested that they can be formed as propagating constitutive instabilities.
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Dates and versions

hal-00585846 , version 1 (10-05-2021)

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A.I. Chemenda, Si-H. Nguyen, Jean-Pierre Petit, J. Ambre. Mode I cracking versus dilatancy banding: Experimental constraints on the mechanisms of extension fracturing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011, 116, pp.B04401, 13 PP. ⟨10.1029/2010JB008104⟩. ⟨hal-00585846⟩
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